I am really confused by this article, since your 5 reasons contradict what you are saying. You define wealth as "the ability to not think about money and instead to think about incomes in a broader sense". So when you look at your 5 points, it really does not make sense to me what you are trying to say for lots of scenarios. I guess the thought that you are stating that people are Broke if they don't follow these list of 5. I will break it down one by one.
Broke Reason #1: Money Is Not Wealth
What you are saying is that having oodles of cash does not mean you are wealthy. The example is that you have someone who has a million is cash and owes a million for their "stuff". Okay I can see that, but your reason is then flawed. I can have a million in cash and no debt and saying that "money is not wealth" is definitely not true. "Money is not wealth if you have a negative net worth." is more apt for what you are trying to describe.
Broke Reason #2: Assets vs. Investments
I whole heatedly disagree with your characterization of the car as a liability. As with any GAAP analysis, you can have an asset, which depreciates over time. You are telling me you have a car, paid off, running, and near end of life which you want to trade into the dealer. If it is not an asset, then there is no point negotiating a higher trade-in value for that vehicle, as it is by definition a liability, and has nothing but negative value for you. Having an asset with ongoing expenses (such as a house, car, lawn mower, etc.) are the cost of living in a modern society and GAAP recognizes it. If you are trying to say that "keeping up with the Jones's is bad", then yes. I agree with that. But telling me that my 7 year old car which is paid off and has a blue book value of 10k is not an asset, that is just ridiculous.
Broke Reason #3: Savings vs. Investments
While I agree you want to have the majority of your money that is not working for you immediately working in investments is a good thing, however I don't see this as a reason why people are broke. This is an investment choice, and they are not growing their money as efficiently as they could. If I had $10k in the bank, and it grew at the prevailing rate of 0.5%, it is still growing. Yes I could make 8% in the stock market, but it is still growing, and if that person is risk adverse, they are happy. You are broke when you have ZERO savings or investments.
Broke Reason #4: Lack of Long Term Thinking
I think this again is wrong for what you are saying. At the end of the day, yes, long term thinking is great and a cool mindset to get into. I have been there for almost 2 decades. However, having long term thinking has ZERO to do with you being broke. I can have one million plans for money, but if you cannot pay the gas bill, you cannot do much about it. Good financial reasoning and planning for the long term with budgets, getting out of debt, and hard work will get you to the point where you have "long term thinking". Someone can be a short term thinker, and still have millions of dollars and no debt in the bank. One does not preclude the other.
Broke Reason #5: Obsessing Over Money
While I agree that if you want to transcend day-by-day thinking of your money for general wealth, stating that if you do think of your money then you are not wealthy is wrong. Many people who are rich obsess over where their next income is, not because they are broke, but because that is what drives them to be richer, motivates them to be good people, etc. Looking again at your definition of wealth, I cannot see your point. You state that "money is only the pathway to wealth, but it is not wealth itself." Okay .. having oodles of money is a pathway to you to "not thinking about money". Yeah, that sounds pretty solid logic. When you have enough of something, then you don't have to worry about it. If you are looking at wealth as this "zen like state where you don't worry about money as it takes care of itself" then yeah - not doing any obsession might be in order. However, understanding and observation of your money will only help you better understand what it is doing for you.
What is wealth?
Again - I disagree with your car analogy. It is an asset with a depreciable expense and ongoing maintenance. Such is the same with your "education" category as well. Go get any technically certification and 5 years again you have to get it again so you are considered educated. Your home has ongoing maintenance. By your own logic those cannot be investments. Same thing with financial investments as they have ongoing expenses within the mutual funds, stock brokerage account fees, etc. The ability to work harder now and work less in to the future is what everyone wants to do. However, it only works if you are independently wealthy (see my definition below) so you can do it. Doing all the things you stated above, I can be a 5 year old and be wealthy.
Looking at this entire article, I wonder if you are aspiring to the place like where you have $100 billion and sit around and order people to do stuff for you. If that is your definition of wealth, then good luck attaining it. I have a very different definition of wealth - which can be as simple as this. "When you are at a point, that your income exceeds your expenses and you are not worried about your financial standing." This way anyone who makes $3 or a $100 billion can fit it as long as they live within their means, and do what they love, and feel like they are a king of their own world and not a slave to someone else.